Scientific name of Ebony: Diospyros ebenum

Names  in different languages:-

English: Black Sapote, Indian Ebony, Ceylon Ebony, East Indian Ebony, Persimmon Ebony

Sanskrit: Tumbi

Hindi: Abnus

Tamil: Vellathovarai, Thumbi, Karai

Malayalam: Karimaram, Katupanachi, Vayari and Karu

Plant description:

It is found in the forests of Kerala, Tamilnadu, and Karnataka areas; it is a large evergreen tree, that grows to 15 m high, the bark is rough, black or grey-black, the leaves are simple, alternately arranged, and the petiole 0.4 to 0.8 cm long, glabrous, elliptic or oblong, apex acuminate, obtuse. flowers solitary, very shortly peduncled, larger than the male ones. The fruits are berries, globose, size 2 cm across; seeds 3-8, calyx persistent and hard.

Leaf Arrangement


Shape-lanceolate Margin-Entire Venation-Reticulate
 longitudinal  Margin_Entire  Recticulate


Useful plant parts:

Heartwood, wood oil, Unripe fruit, leaf, fruit, bark

Medicinal uses:

To treat snake bites, diarrhea, biliousness, ulcers, epistaxis, burns, and scabies.

Chemical contents:

Lupeol, Betulin, Betulinic acid, Ursolic acid, Bauerenol, β-sitiosterol, Stigmasterol etc.

Medicinal Properties: 

Carminative, astringent, laxative, aphrodisiac, and anti anemic.

Ayurveda uses

Ebony, known as “Tendu” in Ayurveda, is a hardwood tree native to several regions including India. While it is not a commonly used medicinal plant in Ayurveda, some parts of the tree have been mentioned for certain therapeutic purposes:

  1. Tooth and Gum Health: The bark of the Ebony tree is traditionally used for oral hygiene. It is believed to strengthen gums and teeth.
  2. Anti-inflammatory Properties: In some traditional practices, Ebony may be used for its anti-inflammatory properties, potentially beneficial for conditions involving inflammation.
  3. Wound Healing: It is believed to have wound-healing properties and may be used topically.
  4. Astringent Properties: Some sources suggest that certain parts of the tree have astringent qualities, which may be useful for toning and firming tissues.
  5. Dysentery and Diarrhea: In certain traditional practices, Ebony may be used in formulations aimed at alleviating symptoms of dysentery and diarrhea.
  6. Skin Disorders: The bark may be used for various skin conditions due to its potential antifungal and antibacterial properties.

It is used as an ingredient to prepare the Ayurvedic medicines like:-

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